A patient with an abnormal TMJ has one or more displaced and deformed tissue types, which could cause joint noise, locking and pain symptoms. These patients are often categorized as having Piper Classification Stage II, Stage IIIa, Stage IIIb, Stage IVa, Stage IVb, Stage Va or Stage Vb joints.
A patient with an abnormal bite cannot reach maximal intercuspation, which is when the tips of the teeth of both the upper and lower jaw interlock, and there is premature contact in the posterior or anterior teeth on one or both sides.
A patient with an abnormal functioning jaw may have reduced range of motion, reduced vertical opening, and chronic or intermittent locking.
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