Piper ClassificationNon-Invasive DiagnosisMicro Surgery
TMJ Anatomy

Initially, it was the relative location of the disc that drew attention as the causative factor in symptomatic TMJ patients. Hence, early diagnostic techniques centered on the anterior to posterior positioning of the disc. The pathologic diagnosis thus became one of disc displacement with or without reduction over the forward-translated mandibular condyle. Unfortunately, according to Dr. Mark A. Piper this approach has been too simplistic. "Normal" joint anatomy involves all of the joint structures, and each of the tissues must act in harmony with all of the other structures in order for the TMJ to function properly. We will examine each of these structures one by one.




Retrodiscal Attachment Tissues


Articular Cartilage




Piper ClassificationNon-Invasive DiagnosisMicro Surgery

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